EPIDEMIOLOGIST Questions and Answers

Explain what is the difference between endemic, epidemic and pandemic?

• Endemic: When a disease persists in specific geographical region and to certain population for a definite period and at consistent level is referred as endemic. Malaria is an endemic disease in Africa or South America.
• Epidemic: When a disease infect higher number of individuals or community without any bar for geographical condition or location, it is referred as epidemic. For example, 1000000 people affected by malaria in Africa is considered endemic, but if same amount of people is infected in Switzerland & USA as well then, it will be considered as epidemic.
• Pandemic: Any disease that spreads worldwide in a short period is referred as pandemic. Spanish Flu is one such example.